Why the 'Air Gap' is Not Enough to Keep Your OT Systems Resilient

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11
May 2023
11
May 2023
An 'air gap' is a security measure meant to reduce cyber risk by ensuring the separation between two systems. However, air-gapped systems have vulnerabilities. Darktrace provides enhanced visibility and resilience for air-gapped systems.

At a Glance:

  • Air gaps reduce cyber risk, but they do not prevent modern cyber attacks
  • Having visibility into an air-gapped network is better than assuming your defenses are impenetrable and having zero visibility
  • Darktrace can provide visibility and resiliency without jeopardizing the integrity of the air gap

What is an 'Air Gap'?

Information technology (IT) needs to fluidly connect with the outside world in order channel a flow of digital information across everything from endpoints and email systems to cloud and hybrid infrastructures. At the same time, this high level of connectivity makes IT systems particularly vulnerable to cyber-attacks.  

Operational technology (OT), which controls the operations of physical processes, are considerably more sensitive. OT often relies on a high degree of regularity to maintain continuity of operations. Even the slightest disturbance can lead to disastrous results. Just a few seconds of delay on a programmable logic controller (PLC), for example, can significantly disrupt a manufacturing assembly line, leading to downtime at a considerable cost. In worst-case scenarios, disruptions to OT can even threaten human safety. 

An air gap is a ‘digital moat’ where data cannot enter or leave OT environments unless it is transferred manually.

Organizations with OT have traditionally tried to reconcile this conflict between IT and OT by attempting to separate them completely. Essentially, the idea is to let IT do what IT does best — facilitate activities like communication and data transfer at rapid speeds, thus allowing people to connect with each other and access information and applications in an efficient capacity. But at the same time, erect an air gap between IT and OT so that any cyber threats that slip into IT systems do not then spread laterally into highly sensitive, mission-critical OT systems. This air gap is essentially a ‘digital moat’ where data cannot enter or leave OT environments unless it is transferred manually.

Limitations of the Air Gap

The air gap approach makes sense, but it is far from perfect. First, many organizations that believe they have completely air-gapped systems in fact have unknown points of IT/OT convergence, that is, connections between IT and OT networks of which they are unaware. 

Many organizations today are also intentionally embracing IT/OT convergence to reap the benefits of digital transformation of their OT, in what is often called Industry 4.0. Examples include the industrial cloud (or ICSaaS), the industrial internet of things (IIoT), and other types of cyber-physical systems that offer increased efficiency and expanded capabilities when compared to more traditional forms of OT. Organizations may also embrace IT/OT convergence due to a lack of human capital, as convergence can make processes simpler and more efficient.

Even when an organization does have a true air gap (which is nearly impossible to confirm without full visibility across IT and OT environments), the fact is that there are a variety of ways for attackers to ‘jump the air gap'. Full visibility across IT and OT ecosystems in a single pane of glass is thus essential for organizations seeking to secure their OT. This is not only to illuminate any points of IT/OT convergence and validate the fact that an air gap exists in the first place, but also to see when an attack slips through the air gap.

Figure 1: Darktrace/OT's unified view of IT and OT environments.

Air Gap Attack Vectors

Even a perfect air gap will be vulnerable to a variety of different attack vectors, including (but not limited to) the following: 

  • Physical compromise: An adversary bypasses physical security and gains access directly to the air-gapped network devices. Physical access is by far the most effective and obvious technique.
  • Insider threats: Someone who is part of an organization and has access to air-gapped secure systems intentionally or unintentionally compromises a system.
  • Supply chain compromise: A vendor with legitimate access to air-gapped systems unwittingly is compromised and brings infected devices into a network. 
  • Misconfiguration: Misconfiguration of access controls or permissions allows an attacker to access the air-gapped system through a separate device on the network.
  • Social engineering (media drop): If an attacker was able to successfully conduct a malicious USB/media drop and an employee was to use that media within the air-gapped system, the network could be compromised. 
  • Other advanced tactics: Thermal manipulation, covert surface vibrations, LEDs, ultrasonic transmissions, radio signals, and magnetic fields are among a range of advanced tactics documented and demonstrated by researchers at Ben Gurion University. 

Vulnerabilities of Air-Gapped Systems

Aside from susceptibility to advanced techniques, tactics, and procedures (TTPs) such as thermal manipulation and magnetic fields, more common vulnerabilities associated with air-gapped environments include factors such as unpatched systems going unnoticed, lack of visibility into network traffic, potentially malicious devices coming on the network undetected, and removable media being physically connected within the network. 

Once the attack is inside OT systems, the consequences can be disastrous regardless of whether there is an air gap or not. However, it is worth considering how the existence of the air gap can affect the time-to-triage and remediation in the case of an incident. For example, the existence of an air gap may seriously limit an incident response vendor’s ability to access the network for digital forensics and response. 

Kremlin Hackers Jumping the Air Gap 

In 2018, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) issued an alert documenting the TTPs used by Russian threat actors known as Dragonfly and Energetic Bear. Further reporting alleged that these groups ‘jumped the air gap,’ and, concerningly, gained the ability to disable the grid at the time of their choosing. 

These attackers successfully gained access to sensitive air-gapped systems across the energy sector and other critical infrastructure sectors by targeting vendors and suppliers through spear-phishing emails and watering hole attacks. These vendors had legitimate access to air-gapped systems, and essentially brought the infection into these systems unintentionally when providing support services such as patch deployment.

This incident reveals that even if a sensitive OT system has complete digital isolation, this robust air gap still cannot fully eliminate one of the greatest vulnerabilities of any system—human error. Human error would still hold if an organization went to the extreme of building a faraday cage to eliminate electromagnetic radiation. Air-gapped systems are still vulnerable to social engineering, which exploits human vulnerabilities, as seen in the tactics that Dragonfly and Energetic Bear used to trick suppliers, who then walked the infection right through the front door. 

Ideally, a technology would be able to identify an attack regardless of whether it is caused by a compromised supplier, radio signal, or electromagnetic emission. By spotting subtle deviations from a device, human, or network’s normal ‘pattern of life’, Self-Learning AI detects even the most nuanced forms of threatening behavior as they emerge — regardless of the source or cause of the threat.

Darktrace/OT for Air-Gapped Environments

Darktrace/OT for air-gapped environments is a physical appliance that deploys directly to the air-gapped system. Using raw digital data from an OT network to understand the normal pattern of life, Darktrace/OT does not need any data or threat feeds from external sources because the AI builds an innate understanding of self without third-party support. 

Because all data-processing and analytics are performed locally on the Darktrace appliance, there is no requirement for Darktrace to have a connection out to the internet. As a result, Darktrace/OT provides visibility and threat detection to air-gapped or highly segmented networks without jeopardizing their integrity. If a human or machine displays even the most nuanced forms of threatening behavior, the solution can illuminate this in real time. 

Security professionals can then securely access Darktrace alerts from anywhere within the network, using a web browser and encrypted HTTPS, and in line with your organization’s network policies.

Figure 2: Darktrace/OT detecting anomalous connections to a SCADA ICS workstation.

With this deployment, Darktrace offers all the critical insights demonstrated in other Darktrace/OT deployments, including (but not limited to) the following:

Organizations seeking to validate whether they have an air gap in the first place and maintain the air gap as their IT and OT environments evolve will greatly benefit from the comprehensive visibility and continuous situational awareness offered by Darktrace’s Self-Learning AI. Also, organizations looking to poke holes in their air gap to embrace the benefits of IT/OT convergence will find that Self-Learning AI’s vigilance spots cyber-attacks that slip through. 

Whatever your organizations goals—be it embracing IIoT or creating a full-blown DMZ—by learning ‘you’, Darktrace’s Self-Learning AI can help you achieve them safely and securely. 

Learn more about Darktrace/OT

Credit to: Daniel Simonds and Oakley Cox for their contribution to this blog.

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Looking Beyond Secure Email Gateways with the Latest Innovations to Darktrace/Email

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09
Apr 2024

Organizations Should Demand More from their Email Security

In response to a more intricate threat landscape, organizations should view email security as a critical component of their defense-in-depth strategy, rather than defending the inbox alone with a traditional Secure Email Gateway (SEG). Organizations need more than a traditional gateway – that doubles, instead of replaces, the capabilities provided by native security vendor – and require an equally granular degree of analysis across all messaging, including inbound, outbound, and lateral mail, plus Teams messages.  

Darktrace/Email is the industry’s most advanced cloud email security, powered by Self-Learning AI. It combines AI techniques to exceed the accuracy and efficiency of leading security solutions, and is the only security built to elevate, not duplicate, native email security.  

With its largest update ever, Darktrace/Email introduces the following innovations, finally allowing security teams to look beyond secure email gateways with autonomous AI:

  • AI-augmented data loss prevention to stop the entire spectrum of outbound mail threats
  • an easy way to deploy DMARC quickly with AI
  • major enhancements to streamline SOC workflows and increase the detection of sophisticated phishing links
  • expansion of Darktrace’s leading AI prevention to lateral mail, account compromise and Microsoft Teams

What’s New with Darktrace/Email  

Data Loss Prevention  

Block the entire spectrum of outbound mail threats with advanced data loss prevention that builds on tags in native email to stop unknown, accidental, and malicious data loss

Darktrace understands normal at individual user, group and organization level with a proven AI that detects abnormal user behavior and dynamic content changes. Using this understanding, Darktrace/Email actions outbound emails to stop unknown, accidental and malicious data loss.  

Traditional DLP solutions only take into account classified data, which relies on the manual input of labelling each data piece, or creating rules to catch pattern matches that try to stop data of certain types leaving the organization. But in today’s world of constantly changing data, regular expression and fingerprinting detection are no longer enough.

  • Human error – Because it understands normal for every user, Darktrace/Email can recognize cases of misdirected emails. Even if the data is correctly labelled or insensitive, Darktrace recognizes when the context in which it is being sent could be a case of data loss and warns the user.  
  • Unclassified data – Whereas traditional DLP solutions can only take action on classified data, Darktrace analyzes the range of data that is either pending labels or can’t be labeled with typical capabilities due to its understanding of the content and context of every email.  
  • Insider threat – If a malicious actor has compromised an account, data exfiltration may still be attempted on encrypted, intellectual property, or other forms of unlabelled data to avoid detection. Darktrace analyses user behaviour to catch cases of unusual data exfiltration from individual accounts.

And classification efforts already in place aren’t wasted – Darktrace/Email extends Microsoft Purview policies and sensitivity labels to avoid duplicate workflows for the security team, combining the best of both approaches to ensure organizations maintain control and visibility over their data.

End User and Security Workflows

Achieve more than 60% improvement in the quality of end-user phishing reports and detection of sophisticated malicious weblinks1

Darktrace/Email improves end-user reporting from the ground up to save security team resource. Employees will always be on the front line of email security – while other solutions assume that end-user reporting is automatically of poor quality, Darktrace prioritizes improving users’ security awareness to increase the quality of end-user reporting from day one.  

Users are empowered to assess and report suspicious activity with contextual banners and Cyber AI Analyst generated narratives for potentially suspicious emails, resulting in 60% fewer benign emails reported.  

Out of the higher-quality emails that end up being reported, the next step is to reduce the amount of emails that reach the SOC. Darktrace/Email’s Mailbox Security Assistant automates their triage with secondary analysis combining additional behavioral signals – using x20 more metrics than previously – with advanced link analysis to detect 70% more sophisticated malicious phishing links.2 This directly alleviates the burden of manual triage for security analysts.

For the emails that are received by the SOC, Darktrace/Email uses automation to reduce time spent investigating per incident. With live inbox view, security teams gain access to a centralized platform that combines intuitive search capabilities, Cyber AI Analyst reports, and mobile application access. Analysts can take remediation actions from within Darktrace/Email, eliminating console hopping and accelerating incident response.

Darktrace takes a user-focused and business-centric approach to email security, in contrast to the attack-centric rules and signatures approach of secure email gateways

Microsoft Teams

Detect threats within your Teams environment such as account compromise, phishing, malware and data loss

Around 83% of Fortune 500 companies rely on Microsoft Office products and services, particularly Teams and SharePoint.3

Darktrace now leverages the same behavioral AI techniques for Microsoft customers across 365 and Teams, allowing organizations to detect threats and signals of account compromise within their Teams environment including social engineering, malware and data loss.  

The primary use case for Microsoft Teams protection is as a potential entry vector. While messaging has traditionally been internal only, as organizations open up it is becoming an entry vector which needs to be treated with the same level of caution as email. That’s why we’re bringing our proven AI approach to Microsoft Teams, that understands the user behind the message.  

Anomalous messaging behavior is also a highly relevant indicator of whether a user has been compromised. Unlike other solutions that analyze Microsoft Teams content which focus on payloads, Darktrace goes beyond basic link and sandbox analysis and looks at actual user behavior from both a content and context perspective. This linguistic understanding isn’t bound by the requirement to match a signature to a malicious payload, rather it looks at the context in which the message has been delivered. From this analysis, Darktrace can spot the early symptoms of account compromise such as early-stage social engineering before a payload is delivered.

Lateral Mail Analysis

Detect and respond to internal mailflow with multi-layered AI to prevent account takeover, lateral phishing and data leaks

The industry’s most robust account takeover protection now prevents lateral mail account compromise. Darktrace has always looked at internal mail to inform inbound and outbound decisions, but will now elevate suspicious lateral mail behaviour using the same AI techniques for inbound, outbound and Teams analysis.

Darktrace integrates signals from across the entire mailflow and communication patterns to determine symptoms of account compromise, now including lateral mailflow

Unlike other solutions which only analyze payloads, Darktrace analyzes a whole range of signals to catch lateral movement before a payload is delivered. Contributing yet another layer to the AI behavioral profile for each user, security teams can now use signals from lateral mail to spot the early symptoms of account takeover and take autonomous actions to prevent further compromise.

DMARC

Gain in-depth visibility and control of 3rd parties using your domain with an industry-first AI-assisted DMARC

Darktrace has created the easiest path to brand protection and compliance with the new Darktrace/DMARC. This new capability continuously stops spoofing and phishing from the enterprise domain, while automatically enhancing email security and reducing the attack surface.

Darktrace/DMARC helps to upskill businesses by providing step by step guidance and automated record suggestions provide a clear, efficient road to enforcement. It allows organizations to quickly achieve compliance with requirements from Google, Yahoo, and others, to ensure that their emails are reaching mailboxes.  

Meanwhile, Darktrace/DMARC helps to reduce the overall attack surface by providing visibility over shadow-IT and third-party vendors sending on behalf of an organization’s brand, while informing recipients when emails from their domains are sent from un-authenticated DMARC source.

Darktrace/DMARC integrates with the wider Darktrace product platform, sharing insights to help further secure your business across Email Attack Path and Attack Surface management.

Schlussfolgerung

To learn more about the new innovations to Darktrace/Email download the solution brief here.

All of the new updates to Darktrace/Email sit within the new Darktrace ActiveAI Security Platform, creating a feedback loop between email security and the rest of the digital estate for better protection. Click to read more about the Darktrace ActiveAI Security Platform or to hear about the latest innovations to Darktrace/OT, the most comprehensive prevention, detection, and response solution purpose built for critical infrastructures.  

Learn about the intersection of cyber and AI by downloading the State of AI Cyber Security 2024 report to discover global findings that may surprise you, insights from security leaders, and recommendations for addressing today’s top challenges that you may face, too.

References

[1] Internal Darktrace Research

[2] Internal Darktrace Research

[3] Essential Microsoft Office Statistics in 2024

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Carlos Gray
Product Manager

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Managing Risk Beyond CVE Scores With the Latest Innovations to Darktrace/OT

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09
Apr 2024

Identifying Cyber Risk in Industrial Organizations

Compromised OT devices in ICS and SCADA environments pose significant physical risks, even endangering lives. However, identifying CVEs in the multitude of complex OT devices is labor-intensive and time-consuming, draining valuable resources.

Even after identifying a vulnerability, implementing a patch presents its own challenges limited maintenance windows and the need for uninterrupted operations strain IT and OT teams often leading organizations to prioritize availability over security leading vulnerabilities remaining unresolved for over 5 years on average. (1)

Darktrace’s New Innovation

Darktrace is an industry leader in cybersecurity with 10+ years of experience securing OT environments where we take a fundamentally different approach using Self-Learning AI to enhance threat detection and response.

Continuing to combat the expanding threat landscape, Darktrace is excited to announce new capabilities that enable a contextualized and proactive approach to managing cyber risk at industrial organizations.

Today we launch an innovation to our OT Cybersecurity solution, Darktrace/OT, that will add a layer of proactivity, enabling a comprehensive approach to risk management. This industry leading innovation for Darktrace/OT moves beyond CVE scores to redefine vulnerability management for critical infrastructure, tackling the full breadth of risks not limited by traditional controls.  

Darktrace/OT is the only OT security solution with comprehensive Risk Management which includes:

  • Contextualized risk analysis unique to your organization
  • The most realistic evaluation and prioritization of OT risk
  • Effectively mitigate risk across your OT infrastructure, with and without patching.
  • The only OT security solution that evaluates your defenses against Advanced Persistent Threat (APT) Groups.

The most comprehensive prevention, detection, and response solution purpose built for Critical Infrastructures

Darktrace’s Self-Learning AI technology is a cutting-edge innovation that implements real time prevention, detection, response, and recovery for operational technologies and enables a fundamental shift from the traditional approach to cyber defense by learning a ‘pattern of life’ for every network, device, and user.  

Rather than relying on knowledge of past attacks, AI technology learns what is ‘normal’ for its environment, discovering previously unknown threats by detecting subtle shifts in behavior. Through identifying these unexpected anomalies, security teams can investigate novel attacks, discover blind spots, have live time visibility across all their physical and digital assets, and reduce time to detect, respond to, and triage security events.  

  • Achieve greater visibility of OT and IT devices across all levels of the Purdue Model.
  • The industry's only OT security to scale threat detection and response, with a 92% time saving from triage to recovery.  
  • The only OT focused security solution to provide bespoke Risk Management.

To learn more about how Darktrace/OT approaches unique use cases for industrial organizations visit the Darktrace/OT Webpage or join us LIVE at a city near you.

Read more below to discover how new innovations to Darktrace/OT are bringing a new, contextualized approach to Risk Management for Industrial organizations.

For more information on the entire Darktrace/OT Solution read our solution brief here.

Darktrace/OT and New Risk Management

Risk Identification

Leveraging the visibility of Darktrace/OT which identifies individual systems throughout the Purdue Model and the relationship between them, Darktrace/OT identifies high-risk CVEs and presents potential attack routes that go beyond techniques requiring a known exploit, such as misuse of legitimate services. Each attack path will have a mathematical evaluation of difficulty and impact from initial access to the high value objectives.  

Together this gives comprehensive coverage over your real and potential risks from both an attacker and known vulnerability perspectives. OT attack paths as seen here even leverage insights between the industrial and corporate communications to reveal ways threat actors may take advantage of IT-OT convergence. This revelation of imperceptible risks fills gaps in traditional risk analysis like remote access and insider threats.

Figure 1: Darktrace/OT visualizing the most critical attack paths at an organization
Figure 1: Darktrace/OT visualizing the most critical attack paths at an organization
Figure 2: A specific Attack Path identified by Darktrace/OT

Risk Prioritization

Darktrace/OT prioritizes remediations and mitigations based on difficulty and damage to your unique organization, using the established Attack Paths.

We ascertain the priorities that apply to your organization beyond pure theoretical damage answering questions like:

  • How difficult is a particular vulnerability to exploit considering the steps an attacker would require to reach it?
  • And, how significant would the impact be if it was exploited within this particular network?

This expanded approach to risk prioritization has a much more comprehensive evaluation of your organization's unique risk than has ever been possible before. Traditional approaches of ranking only known vulnerabilities with isolated scores using CVSS and exploitability metrics, often leaves gaps in IT-OT risks and is blind to legitimate service exploitation.

Figure 3: Darktrace/OT leverages its contextual understand of the organization’s network to prioritize remediation that will have the positive impact on the risk score

Darktrace provides mitigation strategies associated with each identified risk and the relevant impact it has on your overall risk posture, across all MITRE ATT&CK techniques.

What sets Darktrace apart is our ability to contextualize these mitigations within the broader business. When patching vulnerabilities directly isn’t possible, Darktrace identifies alternative actions that harden attack paths leading to critical assets. Hardening the surrounding attack path increases the difficulty and therefore reduces the likelihood and impact of a breach.

That means unpatched vulnerabilities and vulnerable devices aren’t left unprotected. This also has an added bonus, those hardening techniques work for all devices in that network segment, so apply one change, secure many.

Figure 4: Darktrace prioritizes mitigation reducing accessibility of vulnerability and the overall risk score when patches aren’t available

Communicate Board Level Risk with APT Threat Mapping

Darktrace/OT bridges theory and practice as the only security solution that maps MITRE techniques, frequently used by APT Groups, onto AI-assessed critical Attack Paths. This unique solution provides unparalleled insights including sector and location intelligence, possible operating platforms, common techniques, exploited CVEs, and the number of potential devices affected in your environment, supporting holistic risk assessment and proactive defense measures.

Ultimately, this becomes a power dashboard to communicate board level risk, using both metric based evidence and industry standard threat mapping.

Schlussfolgerung

Darktrace/OT is part of the Darktrace ActiveAI Security Platform a native, holistic, AI-driven platform built on over ten years of AI research. It helps security teams shift to more a productive mode, finding the known and the unknown attacks and transforming the SOC with the various Darktrace products to drive efficiency gains. It does this across the whole incident lifecycle to lower risk, reduce time spent on active incidents, and drive return on investment.

Discover more about Darktrace's ever-strengthening platform with the upcoming changes coming to our Darktrace/Email product and other launch day blogs.

Join Darktrace LIVE half-day event to understand the reality versus the hype surrounding AI and how to achieve cyber resilience.

Learn about the intersection of cyber and AI by downloading the State of AI Cyber Security 2024 report to discover global findings that may surprise you, insights from security leaders, and recommendations for addressing today’s top challenges that you may face, too.  

References

1. https://research-information.bris.ac.uk/ws/portalfiles/portal/313646831/Catch_Me_if_You_Can.pdf

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Mitchell Bezzina
VP, Product and Solutions Marketing
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