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Stopped in its tracks: How RESPOND neutralizes zero-day ransomware

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14
Jan 2020
14
Jan 2020
Cyber AI is taking back the advantage over an ever-evolving adversary, saving time, money, resources, and – perhaps most critically – reputation.

The FBI estimates that, on average, more than 4,000 ransomware attacks have occurred every day since 2016. Operating at machine speeds, ransomware is capable of wreaking havoc on a digital enterprise within mere seconds. And unfortunately, traditional security tools are only programmed to detect known cyber-threats using rules and signatures – leaving them blind to tailored and novel ransomware threats that have never been seen before in the wild.

Because Darktrace’s fundamental approach to cyber defense does not rely on rules and signatures to identify emerging threats, it is in a unique position to neutralize novel attacks. In one recent customer environment, Darktrace RESPOND (formerly known as 'Antigena') stopped a previously-unknown ‘zero-day’ ransomware attack targeting an electronics manufacturer. Even when deployed over a fraction of the digital estate, Darktrace RESPOND was able to neutralize this never-before-seen ransomware strain before it could do any damage.

Imperfect visibility, perfect response

While Darktrace provides 100% coverage of the entire digital infrastructure, from email and cloud to IoT and networks, business challenges sometimes prevent users from obtaining full visibility into their environment. However, even when working with imperfect data and suboptimal coverage, Cyber AI can still identify ongoing threats as they emerge. In the below attack, Darktrace was not covering the initial stages of the attack lifecycle, including the initial infection and command & control establishment – yet the AI was able to autonomously respond within seconds, before the attack escalated into a crisis.

Anatomy of a ransomware attack

In this example, Darktrace’s AI identified patient zero deviating significantly from its typical pattern of internal behavior. This was illustrated by a spike in the pattern of regular connections made by patient zero and a series of high-confidence alerts firing in quick succession. These included:

  1. Compromise / Ransomware / Suspicious SMB Activity — triggers when a device begins making unusual SMB connections across the organization
  2. Antigena Ransomware Block — triggers Antigena to take an action when the behavior is significantly similar to ransomware
  3. Device / Reverse DNS Sweep — triggers when a device makes unusual reverse DNS lookups, a tactic often used during reconnaissance

Figure 1: Several Darktrace alerts fire, and a deviation from the regular pattern of life is visible

Indeed, not only was the device observed making an unexpectedly large number of connections, but it was also reading and writing a large number of SMB files and transferring this data internally to a server it did not usually communicate with. The spike in internal connections between patient zero and the server was a strong indicator of malware attempting to move laterally through the network.

Figure 2: Four model breaches observed on October 30th and a dotted line representing Antigena’s actions

Further investigation into the SMB activity revealed that hundreds of Dropbox-related files were accessed on SMB shares that the device had not previously accessed. Moreover, several of these files started becoming encrypted, appended with a [HELP_DECRYPT] extension.

Figure 3: Darktrace detects SMB activity relating to Dropbox files

Fortunately, Darktrace RESPOND was in Active Mode, and kicked in a second later, enforcing the usual pattern of life by blocking anomalous connections for five minutes, immediately stopping the encryption. By the time Darktrace’s AI took action, only four of these files were successfully encrypted.

Figure 4: Darktrace RESPOND kicks in 1 second after ransomware was detected

Figure 5: More Antigena (RESPOND) alerts and a clear indication of the unusual activity detected

RESPOND then took a second action to stop the ransomware from spreading to other devices. The combination of various anomalous activities was sufficient evidence for Autonomous Response to neutralize the threat: patient zero was quarantined for 24 hours, unable to connect to the server or any other device on the network.

Figure 6: Darktrace stops the infected device from conducting lateral movement & ransom activity

Darktrace RESPOND therefore not only stopped the encryption activity in its tracks, but also prevented the attackers from moving laterally across the network unimpeded – either by scanning, using harvested admin credentials, or performing internal reconnaissance. Autonomous Response initiated a surgical intervention that halted the malware’s spread, all while allowing normal business operations to continue.

No signatures, no problem

Crucially, this strain of ransomware was not associated with any publicly known indicators of compromise such as blacklisted command & control domains or malware file hashes. Darktrace was able to detect this never-before-seen attack based purely on its comprehensive understanding of the normal pattern of life for every device and user within the organization. Once the deviation from this normal behavior was identified, Antigena was able to stop it immediately – without relying on rules, signatures, or historical data. With autonomous response acting decisively and immediately, the security team had enough time to catch up and perform hands-on incident response work.

Darktrace’s AI provides a potent combination: Darktrace DETECT's capacity to reveal deviations in a device’s behavior together with RESPOND acting to block connections and contain the ransomware from spreading across the enterprise. AI-enabled Autonomous Response neutralized the threat by recognizing the lethal recipe of these unusual internal alerts and taking targeted action against the ransomware. This stealthy strain of ransomware is unlikely to have been noticed, let alone stopped, by a security team reliant on legacy tools.

The Return-On-Security-Investment (ROSI) is often discussed when it comes to cyber security expenditure, and this incident provides a great example of the ROSI manifesting itself – recent ransomware attacks usually demand hundreds of thousands of dollars’ worth of ransom payments. Without Darktrace RESPOND containing the threat at an early stage, it is likely that thousands of files would have been encrypted. By relying on Cyber AI, the company was able to take back the advantage over an ever-evolving adversary, saving time, money, resources, and – perhaps most critically – the company’s reputation.

EINBLICKE IN DAS SOC-Team
Darktrace Cyber-Analysten sind erstklassige Experten für Threat Intelligence, Threat Hunting und Incident Response. Sie bieten Tausenden von Darktrace Kunden auf der ganzen Welt rund um die Uhr SOC-Support. Einblicke in das SOC-Team wird ausschließlich von diesen Experten verfasst und bietet Analysen von Cyber-Vorfällen und Bedrohungstrends, die auf praktischen Erfahrungen in diesem Bereich basieren.
AUTOR
ÜBER DEN AUTOR
Max Heinemeyer
Leiter der Produktabteilung

Max is a cyber security expert with over a decade of experience in the field, specializing in a wide range of areas such as Penetration Testing, Red-Teaming, SIEM and SOC consulting and hunting Advanced Persistent Threat (APT) groups. At Darktrace, Max is closely involved with Darktrace’s strategic customers & prospects. He works with the R&D team at Darktrace, shaping research into new AI innovations and their various defensive and offensive applications. Max’s insights are regularly featured in international media outlets such as the BBC, Forbes and WIRED. Max holds an MSc from the University of Duisburg-Essen and a BSc from the Cooperative State University Stuttgart in International Business Information Systems.

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Customer Blog: Community Housing Limited Enhancing Incident Response

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04
Mar 2024

About Community Housing Limited

Community Housing Limited is a non-profit organization based in Australia that focuses on providing affordable, long-term housing and creating employment opportunities where possible. We give people the security of having a home so that they can focus on other essential pathways. As such, we are responsible for sensitive information on our clients.

As part of our commitment to strengthening our cyber security, we sought to simplify and unify our incident response plans and equip our engineers and desktop support teams with all the information we need at our fingertips.

Why Community Housing Limited chose Darktrace

Our team hoped to achieve a response procedure that allowed us to have oversight over any potential security risks, even cases that don’t overtly seem like a security risk. For example, an incident could start as a payroll issue and end up in the hands of HR, instead of surfacing as a security problem. In this case, our security team has no way of knowing the real number of events or how the threat had actually started and played out, making incident response and mitigation even more challenging.

We were already a customer of Darktrace’s autonomous threat detection, attack intervention, and attack surface management capabilities, and decided to add Darktrace for AI-assisted incident response and AI cyber-attack simulation.

AI-generated playbooks save time during incident response

I wanted to reduce the time and resources it took our security team to appropriately respond to a threat. Darktrace automates several steps of the recovery process to accelerate the rate of incident response by using AI that learns the granular details of the specific organization, building a dynamic understanding of the devices, connections, and user behaviors that make up the normal “pattern of life.”  

The AI then uses this understanding to create bespoke, AI-generated incident response playbooks that leverage an evolving understanding of our organization to determine recovery steps that are tailored not only to the specific incident but also to our unique environment.

For my security team, this means having access to all the information we need to respond to a threat. When running through an incident, rather than going to different places to synthesize relevant information, which takes up valuable resources and time, we can speed up its remediation with Darktrace.  

The playbooks created by Darktrace help lower the technical skills required to respond to incidents by elevating the workload of the staff, tripling our capacity for incident response.

Realistic attack simulations upskill teams while saving resources

We have differing levels of experience on the team which means some members know exactly what to do during incident response while others are slower and need more guidance. Thus, we have to either outsource skilled security professionals or add a security solution that could lower the technical skills bar.

You don’t want to be second guessing and searching for the right move – it’s urgent – there should be certainty. Our goal with running attack simulations is to test and train our team's response capabilities in a “realistic” scenario. But this takes considerable time to plan and execute or can be expensive if outsourced, which can be a challenge for organizations short on resources. 

Darktrace provides AI-assisted incident response and cyber-attack simulation using AI that understands the organization to run simulations that effectively map onto the real digital environment and the assets within it, providing training for actual incidents.

It is one thing to sit together in a meeting and discuss various outcomes of a cyber-attack, talking through the best response strategies. It is a huge benefit being able to run attack simulations that emulate real-world scenarios.

Our team can now see how an incident would play out over several days to resemble a real-world scenario or it can play through the simulation quickly to ascertain outcomes immediately. It then uses these insights to strengthen its technology, processes, and training.

AI-Powered Incident Response

Darktrace helps my security team save resources and upskill staff using AI to generate bespoke playbooks and run realistic simulations. Its real-time understanding of our business ensures incident preparedness and incident response are tailored to not only the specific threat in question, but also to the contextual infrastructure of the organization.  

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About the author
Jamie Woodland
Head of Technology at Community Housing Limited

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E-Mail

Beyond DMARC: Navigating the Gaps in Email Security

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29
Feb 2024

Email threat landscape  

Email has consistently ranked among the most targeted attack vectors, given its ubiquity and criticality to business operations. From September to December 2023, 10.4 million phishing emails were detected across Darktrace’s customer fleet demonstrating the frequency of attempted email-based attacks.

Businesses are searching for ways to harden their email security posture alongside email providers who are aiming to reduce malicious emails traversing their infrastructure, affecting their clients. Domain-based Message Authentication (DMARC) is a useful industry-wide protocol organizations can leverage to move towards these goals.  

What is DMARC?

DMARC is an email authentication protocol designed to enhance the security of email communication.

Major email service providers Google and Yahoo recently made the protocol mandatory for bulk senders in an effort to make inboxes safer worldwide. The new requirements demonstrate an increasing need for a standardized solution as misconfigured or nonexistent authentication systems continue to allow threat actors to evade detection and leverage the legitimate reputation of third parties.  

DMARC is a powerful tool that allows email administrators to confidently identify and stop certain spoofed emails; however, more organizations must implement the standard for it to reach its full potential. The success and effectiveness of DMARC is dependent on broad adoption of the standard – by organizations of all sizes.  

How does DMARC work?

DMARC builds on two key authentication technologies, Sender Policy Framework (SPF) and DomainKeys Identified Mail (DKIM) and helps to significantly improve their ability to prevent domain spoofing. SPF verifies that a sender’s IP address is authorized to send emails on behalf of a particular domain and DKIM ensures integrity of email content by providing a verifiable digital signature.  

DMARC adds to this by allowing domain owners to publish policies that set expectations for how SPF and DKIM verification checks relate to email addresses presented to users and whose authenticity the receiving mail server is looking to establish.  

These policies work in tandem to help authenticate email senders by verifying the emails are from the domain they say they are, working to prevent domain spoofing attacks. Key benefits of DMARC include:

  1. Phishing protection DMARC protects against direct domain spoofing in which a threat actor impersonates a legitimate domain, a common phishing technique threat actors use to trick employees to obtain sensitive information such as privileged credentials, bank information, etc.  
  2. Improving brand reputation: As DMARC helps to prevent impersonation of domains, it stands to maintain and increase an organization’s brand reputation. Additionally, as organizational reputation improves, so will the deliverability of emails.
  3. Increased visibility: DMARC provides enhanced visibility into email communication channels, including reports of all emails sent on behalf of your domain. This allows security teams to identify shadow-IT and any unauthorized parties using their domain.

Understanding DMARC’s Limitations

DMARC is often positioned as a way for organizations to ‘solve’ their email security problems, however, 65% of the phishing emails observed by Darktrace successfully passed DMARC verification, indicating that a significant number of threat actors are capable of manipulating email security and authentication systems in their exploits. While DMARC is a valuable tool in the fight against email-based attacks, the evolving threat landscape demands a closer look at its limitations.  

As threat actors continue to innovate, improving their stealth and evasion tactics, the number of attacks with valid DMARC authentication will only continue to increase in volume and sophistication. These can include:

  1. Phishing attacks that leverage non-spoofed domains: DMARC allows an organization to protect the domains that they own, preventing threat actors from being able to send phishing emails from their domains. However, threat actors will often create and use ‘look-a-like’ domains that closely resemble an organization’s domain to dupe users. 3% of the phishing emails identified by Darktrace utilized newly created domains, demonstrating shifting tactics.  
  2. Email Account Takeovers: If a threat actor gains access to a user’s email account through other social engineering means such as credential stuffing, they can then send phishing emails from the legitimate domain to pursue further attacks. Even though these emails are malicious, DMARC would not identify them as such because they are coming from an authorized domain or sender.  

Organizations must also ensure their inbound analysis of emails is not skewed by successful DMARC authentication. Security teams cannot inherently trust emails that pass DMARC, because the source cannot always be legitimized, like in the event of an account takeover. If a threat actor gains access to an authenticated email account, emails sent by the threat actor from that account will pass DMARC – however the contents of that email may be malicious. Sender behavior must be continuously evaluated and vetted in real time as past communication history and validated DMARC cannot be solely relied upon amid an ever-changing threat landscape.  

Security teams should lean on other security measures, such as anomaly detection tools that can identify suspicious emails without relying on historical attack rules and static data. While DMARC is not a silver bullet for email security, it is nevertheless foundational in helping organizations protect their brand identity and must be viewed as an essential layer in an organization's overall cyber security strategy.  

Implementing DMARC

Despite the criticality of DMARC for preserving brand reputation and trust, adoption of the standard has been inconsistent. DMARC can be complex to implement with many organizations lacking the time required to understand and successfully implement the standard. Because of this, DMARC set-up is often outsourced, giving security and infrastructure teams little to no visibility into or control of the process.  

Implementation of DMARC is only the start of this process, as DMARC reports must be consistently monitored to ensure organizations have visibility into who is sending mail from their domain, the volume of mail being sent and whether the mail is passing authentication protocols. This process can be time consuming for security teams who are already faced with mounting responsibilities, tight budgets, and personnel shortages. These complexities unfortunately delay organizations from using DMARC – especially as many today still view it as a ‘nice to have’ rather than an essential.  

With the potential complexities of the DMARC implementation process, there are many ways security and infrastructure teams can still successfully roll out the standard. Initial implementation should start with monitoring, policy adjustment and then enforcement. As business changes over time, DMARC should be reviewed regularly to ensure ongoing protection and maintain domain reputation.

The Future of Email Security

As email-based attacks continue to rise, the industry must recognize the importance of driving adoption of foundational email authentication protocols. To do this, a new and innovative approach to DMARC is needed. DMARC products must evolve to better support organizations throughout the ongoing DMARC monitoring process, rather than just initial implementation. These products must also be able to share intelligence across an organization’s security stack, extending beyond email security tools. Integration across these products and tools will help organizations optimize their posture, ensuring deep understanding of their domain and increased visibility across the entire enterprise.

DMARC is critical in protecting brand identity and mitigating exact-domain based attacks. However, organizations must understand DMARC’s unique benefits and limitations to ensure their inboxes are fully protected. In today’s evolving threat landscape, organizations require a robust, multi-layered approach to stop email threats – in inbound mail and beyond. Email threats have evolved – its time security does too.

Join Darktrace on 9 April for a virtual event to explore the latest innovations needed to get ahead of the rapidly evolving threat landscape. Register today to hear more about our latest innovations coming to Darktrace’s offerings. For additional insights check out Darktrace’s 2023 End of Year Threat Report.

Credit to Carlos Gray and Stephen Pickman for their contribution to this blog

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About the author
Carlos Gray
Product Manager

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